Our mouths are full of bacteria. These bacteria, along with mucus and other particles, constantly form “plaque” on teeth. Brushing and flossing helps to get rid of plaque. Plaque that is not removed can harden and form “tartar” that brushing can't clean. Only a professional cleaning by a dentist or dental hygienist can remove tartar.
The longer plaque and tartar are on teeth, the more harmful they become. The bacteria cause inflammation of the gums called as “gingivitis.” In gingivitis, the gums become red, swollen and can bleed easily. Gingivitis is a mild form of gum disease that can usually be reversed with daily brushing and flossing, and regular cleaning by a dentist or dental hygienist. This form of gum disease does not include any loss of bone and tissue that hold teeth in place.
If gingivitis is not treated, it can advance to “periodontitis” (which means “inflammation around the tooth”). In periodontitis, gums gets detached from teeth, forming spaces called “pockets” that become infected. The body’s immune system fights, as the plaque spreads and grows below the gum line. Bacterial toxins and the body’s natural response to infection starts to break down the bone and connective tissue that hold teeth in place. If not treated, the bones, gums, and periodontal tissue that support the teeth are destroyed. The teeth may eventually become mobile and fall off.
· Bad breath that won’t go away
· Red or swollen gums
· Tender or bleeding gums
· Painful chewing
· Mobile teeth
· Sensitive teeth
· Receding gums or longer appearing teeth
Deep Cleaning(Scaling & Root Planing): Scaling means scraping off the tartar from above and below the gum line. Root planing removes spots on the tooth root where the micro-organisms gets accumulated, and helps remove bacteria that contribute to the disease.
Flap Surgery: Surgery might be necessary if inflammation and deep pockets remain following treatment with deep cleaning and medications. A flap surgery may be done to remove tartar deposits in deep pockets or to reduce the depth of periodontal pockets to keep the infected area clean. .
Bone and Tissue Grafts: In addition to flap surgery, bone grafts may be placed to help regenerate bone or gum tissue lost due to periodontitis. Bone grafting is the procedure in which natural or synthetic bone graft is placed in the area of bone loss to promote bone growth..